Chapter 7.     Competing Interests in Research

S. Gaylen Bradley



Anderson MS, Steneck NH (ed). 2011. International Research Collaborations: Much To Be Gained, Many Ways To Get in Trouble. Routledge, New York, NY.

Brockway LM, Furcht LT; FASEB. 2006. Conflicts of interest in biomedical research—the FASEB guidelines. FASEB J 20:2435–2438.

Bulger RE, Heitman E, Reiser SJ. 2002. The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health Sciences, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Campbell EG, Gruen RL, Mountford J, Miller LG, Cleary PD, Blumenthal D. 2007. A national survey of physician-industry relationships. N Engl J Med 356:1742–1750.

Campbell EG, Weissman JS, Ehringhaus S, Rao SR, Moy B, Feibelmann S, Goold SD. 2007. Institutional academic-industry relationships. JAMA 298: 1779–1786.

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. 2009. On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct of Research, 3rd ed. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

Goodstein D. 2010. On Fact and Fraud: Cautionary Tales from the Front Lines of Science. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

National Research Council. 2009. Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

Shamoo AE, Resnik DB. 2009. Responsible Conduct of Research, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Steneck NH. 2007. ORI Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research, revised ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.


On the American Medical Association (AMA) website is the AMA’s Code of Medical Ethics, listing guidelines including 8.03 (Conflicts of Interest: Guidelines), 8.031 (Conflicts of Interest: Biomedical Research), 8.0315 (Managing Conflicts of Interest in the Conduct of Clinical Trials), and 8.061 (Gifts to Physicians from Industry):

Department of Health and Human Services final rule (42 CFR 50, 42 CFR 94): Responsibility of Applicants for Promoting Objectivity in Research for Which Public Health Service Funding Is Sought and Responsible Prospective Contractors (Federal Register, Aug. 25, 2011, Vol. 76, No. 165, p 53256–53293):

The National Institutes of Health’s Office of Extramural Research website on conflict of interest:

The National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services have developed the resources to help ensure transparency regarding outside activities and proactive management of conflict-of-interest issues:

Recommendations on partner accommodation and dual-career appointments were prepared in 2010 by a subcommittee of the Committee on Women in the Academic Profession of the American Association of University Professors, but without endorsing a particular policy or practice for dual-career appointments:

The Supreme Court on June 6, 2011, ruled that the Bayh-Dole Act does not automatically vest ownership of patent rights in universities when the underlying research was federally funded. More information can be found on