Chapter 11.    Science, Technology, and Society
 

Cindy L. Munro and Francis L. Macrina
 

Resources
 

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Atlas R, Campbell P, Cozzarelli NR, Curfman G, Enquist L, Fink G, Flanagin A, Fletcher J, George E, Hammes G, Heyman D, Inglesby T, Kaplan S, Kennedy D, Krug J, Levinson R, Marcus E, Metzger H, Morse SS, O’Brien A, Onderdonk A, Poste G, Renault B, Rich R, Rosengard A, Salzberg S, Scanlan M, Shenk T, Tabor H, Varmus H, Wimmer E, Yamamoto K; Journal Editors and Authors Group. 2003. Statement on the consideration of biodefence and biosecurity. Nature 421:771.
 

Beckwith J. 2002. Making Genes, Making Waves: A Social Activist in Science. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
 

Beckwith J, Huang F. 2005. Should we make a fuss? A case for social responsibility in science. Nat Biotechnol 23:1479–1480.
 

Berg P, Baltimore D, Boyer HW, Cohen SN, Davis RW, Hogness DS, Nathans D, Roblin R, Watson JD, Weissman S, Zinder ND. 1974. Letter: Potential biohazards of recombinant DNA molecules. Science 185:303. (Also published in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:2593–2594 [1974].)
 

Berg P, Baltimore D, Brenner S, Roblin RO III, Singer MF. 1975. Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA molecules. Science 188:991–994. (Also published in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:1981–1984 [1975].)
 

Bulger RE, Heitman E, Reiser SJ. 2002. The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health Sciences, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom.
 

Cohen SN, Chang AC, Boyer HW, Helling RB. 1973. Constructions of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:3240–3244.
 

Elward C. 2013. Dual use research of concern: practical policy approaches to best avoid misuse in the life sciences. The Spectra (the Virginia Engineering and Science Research Journal) IV, Spring 2013, p 11–20. http://www.seas.virginia.edu/pubs/spectra/pdfs/journal.pdf.
 

Fouchier RA, García-Sastre A, Kawaoka Y, Barclay WS, Bouvier NM, Brown IH, Capua I, Chen H, Compans RW, Couch RB, Cox NJ, Doherty PC, Donis RO, Feldmann H, Guan Y, Katz J, Klenk HD, Kobinger G, Liu J, Liu X, Lowen A, Mettenleiter TC, Osterhaus AD, Palese P, Peiris JS, Perez DR, Richt JA, Schultz-Cherry S, Steel J, Subbarao K, Swayne DE, Takimoto T, Tashiro M, Taubenberger JK, Thomas PG, Tripp RA, Tumpey TM, Webby RJ, Webster RG. 2012. Pause on avian flu transmission research. Science 335:400–401.
 

Frederickson D. 2001. The Recombinant DNA Controversy—A Memoir. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
 

Holtzman NA, Watson MS. 1998. Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States: Final Report of the Task Force on Genetic Testing. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
 

Hudson KL, Collins FS. 2013. Biospecimen policy: family matters. Nature 500:141–142.
 

Imai M, Watanabe T, Hatta M, Das SC, Ozawa M, Shinya K, Zhong G, Hanson A, Katsura H, Watanabe S, Li C, Kawakami E, Yamada S, Kiso M, Suzuki Y, Maher EA, Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. 2012. Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 HA confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ferrets. Nature 486:420–428.
 

Jackson DA, Symons RH, Berg P. 1972. Biochemical method for inserting new genetic information into DNA of simian virus 40: circular SV40 DNA molecules containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69:2904–2909.
 

Lander ES. 2011. Initial impact of the sequencing of the human genome. Nature 470:187–197.
 

National Research Council. 2004. Biotechnology Research in an Age of Bioterrorism. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309089778.
 

Pigman W, Carmichael EB. 1950. An ethical code for scientists. Science 111:643–647.
 

Reinhold R. 1969. Scientists isolate a gene; step in heredity control. The New York Times, November 23, 1969, p 1, 72.
 

Reiser SJ, Bulger RE. 1997. The social responsibilities of biological scientists. Sci Eng Ethics 3:137–143.
 

Rodriguez LL, Brooks LD, Greenberg JH, Green ED. 2013. Research ethics. The complexities of genomic identifiability. Science 339:275–276.
 

Science. 2012. Special issue: H5N1. http://www.sciencemag.org/site/special/h5n1/.
 

Shapiro J, Machattie L, Eron L, Ihler G, Ippen K, Beckwith J. 1969. Isolation of pure lac operon DNA. Nature 224:768–774.
 

Shuster E. 1997. Fifty years later: the significance of the Nuremberg Code. N Engl J Med 337:1436–1440.
 

Online
 

Paul Berg’s 2004 article “Asilomar and Recombinant DNA” is available on the Nobel Prize website:

    http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1980/berg-article.html
 

“Statement by NIH Director Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D., on the NSABB Review of Revised H5N1 Manuscripts,” from 2012, can be accessed on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) website:

    http://www.nih.gov/about/director/04202012_NSABB.htm
 

The Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) Research Program, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)

    http://www.genome.gov/elsi/
 

Information on the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) of 2008 can be found on the NHGRI website at:

    http://www.genome.gov/24519851
 

HeLa Genome Data Access Working Group (with link to HeLa data sharing agreement):

    http://acd.od.nih.gov/hlgda.htm
 

For a HeLa cell-Henrietta Lacks story timeline, derived from Rebecca Skloot’s research for The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, see:

    http://rebeccaskloot.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/HenriettaLacks_RGG_timeline.pdf
 

National Select Agent Registry (Centers for Disease Control and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services/Agricultural Select Agent Program):

    http://www.selectagents.gov/
 

NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (Office of Science Policy): the recombinant DNA program overseen by the NIH, which includes the NIH Guidelines, the Institutional Biosafety Committee registration site, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, and other items, may be accessed online at

    http://osp.od.nih.gov/office-biotechnology-activities/rdna/rdna.html
 

NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (Office of Science Policy): the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity website is located at

    http://osp.od.nih.gov/office-biotechnology-activities/biosecurity/biosecurity.html
 

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Recommendations and Reports on manuscripts reporting the transmissibility of influenza A/H5N1 virus:

    http://osp.od.nih.gov/office-biotechnology-activities/biosecurity/biosecurity_docu ments.html
 

NIH Policy on Mitigating Risks of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern. Notice Number: NOT-OD-13-107 (released in 2013):

    http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-13-107.html

 

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) Proposed Framework for the Oversight of Dual Use Life Sciences Research: Strategies for Minimizing the Potential Misuse of Research Information (2007):

    http://osp.od.nih.gov/sites/default/files/resources/Framework%20for%20transmittal%20duplex%209-10-07.pdf
 

United States Government Policy for the Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern (2012):

    http://oba.od.nih.gov/oba/biosecurity/pdf/united_states_government_policy_for_oversight_of_durc_final_version_032812.pdf
 

The following organizations promote social activism in science.
 

Council for Responsible Genetics

    http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/
 

Union of Concerned Scientists

    http://www.ucsusa.org/
 

Physicians for Social Responsibility

    http://www.psr.org/
 

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