Chapter 1.     Methods, Manners and the Responsible Conduct of Research

Francis L. Macrina
 

Resources

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Barnbaum DR, Byron M. 2001. Research Ethics: Text and Readings. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Bauer H. 1992. Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method. University of Illinois Press, Chicago, IL.

Beckwith J. 2002. Making Genes, Making Waves: A Social Activist in Science. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Brenner S. 2001. My Life in Science. Science Archive Limited, London, United Kingdom.

Brenner S, Jacob F, Meselson M. 1961. An unstable intermediate carrying information from genes to ribosomes for protein synthesis. Nature 190:576-581.

Bulger RE, Heitman E, Reiser SJ. 2002. The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health Sciences, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.

Caplan A. 1998. Due Consideration: Controversy in the Age of Medical Miracles. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. 2009. On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct of Research, 3rd ed. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309119707.

Crewdson J. 2002. Science Fictions: A Scientific Mystery, a Massive Cover-up, and the Dark Legacy of Robert Gallo. Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, MA.

D’Angelo J. 2012. Ethics in Science: Ethical Misconduct in Scientific Research. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Elliott D, Stern JE (ed). 1997. Research Ethics: A Reader. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH.

Fanelli D. 2009. How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data. PLoS One 4:e5738. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005738.

Fanelli D. 2010. Do pressures to publish increase scientists’ bias? An empirical support for US states data. PLoS One 5:e10271. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010271.

Geison GL. 1995. The Private Science of Louis Pasteur. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Goodstein D. 1991. Scientific fraud. Am Scholar 60:505-515.

Goodstein D. 2010. On Fact and Fraud: Cautionary Tales from the Front Lines of Science. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Grinnell F. 1992. The Scientific Attitude. The Guilford Press, New York, NY.

Grinnell F. 1997. Truth, fairness, and the definition of scientific misconduct. J Lab Clin Med 129:189–192

Grinnell F. 2009. Everyday Practice of Science. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Jacob F. 1988. The Statue Within. Basic Books, Inc., New York, NY.

Kevles DJ. 1988. The Baltimore Case: A Trial of Politics, Science, and Character. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, NY.

Luria S. 1975. What makes a scientist cheat. Prism, May, p. 15–18, 44. (Reprinted in Beckwith J, Silhavy T. 1992. The Power of Bacterial Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.)

Medawar PB. 1991. The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Michalek AM, Hutson AD, Wicher CP, Trump DL. 2010. The costs and underappreciated consequences of research misconduct: a case study. PLoS Med 7:e1000318. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000318.

National Research Council. 1989. The Responsible Conduct of Research in the Health Sciences. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

National Research Council. 1992. Responsible Science, vol I. Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

National Research Council. 2002. Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment That Promotes Responsible Conduct. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

Pensler RL (ed). 1995. Research Ethics: Cases and Materials. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.

Reich ES. 2009. Plastic Fantastic: How the Biggest Fraud in Physics Shook the Scientific World. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, NY.

Resnik DB. 1998. The Ethics of Science: An Introduction. Routledge, New York, NY.

Schachman HK. 1993. What is misconduct in science? Science 261:148–149, 183.

Shamoo AE, Resnik DB. 2009. Responsible Conduct of Research, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Steneck NH. 2007. ORI Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. http://ori.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/rcrintro.pdf

Stewart CN Jr. 2011. Research Ethics for Scientists: a Companion for Students. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, United Kingdom.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Commission on Research Integrity. 1995. Integrity and Misconduct in Research: Report of the Commission on Research Integrity. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. http://ori.hhs.gov/images/ddblock/report_commission.pdf.

Online

Definitions of Scientific Misconduct

Public Health Service Policies on Research Misconduct—42 CFR Part 93—June 2005. (Final Rule. May 17, 2005. Fed Regist 70:28370-28400.) Online at:

http://ori.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/42_cfr_parts_50_and_93_2005.pdf

National Science Foundation 45 CFR 689 Research Misconduct. March 18, 2002. Fed Regist 67:11936-11939. Online at:

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2002-03-18/pdf/02-6179.pdf

45 CFR 689 NSF Research Misconduct Code (2002):

http://www.nsf.gov/oig/resmisreg.pdf

The Professional Ethics Report, published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which runs articles dealing with professional ethics in science:

http://www.aaas.org/page/professional-ethics-report-archives

Canadian Tri-Agency Framework: Responsible Conduct of Research. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) use this policy to support their legislative mandates in promoting responsible conduct of research:

http://www.rcr.ethics.gc.ca/eng/policy-politique/framework-cadre/

National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Misconduct web page:

http://www.nsf.gov/oig/misconscieng.jsp

Office of Research Integrity Model Policy for Responding to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct:

http://www.onlineethics.org/Topics/RespResearch/ResEssays/5664/mod.aspx

United Kingdom Research Integrity office, an independent agency that provides advice and guidance on the responsible conduct of research:

http://www.ukrio.org/

U.S. Public Health Service Office of Research Integrity website:

http://ori.hhs.gov/

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